Trauma: Temporal disruption

"Trauma creates a self-perpetuating mechanism that appears as a seemingly endless feedback loop and thus becomes, by definition, antinarrative. Once triggered, the traumatic memory takes over reality to the extent that the subject imagines herself in the same situation she was when the actual event occurred, then responds accordingly. This, in turn, alters her current reality to the degree that 'real' time does not pass. Paradoxically, the trauma victim always lives in the 'present' (of the original event), yet is unable to experience the actual present as a temporal dimension – there is a sense of stasis, as if time did not pass. This stasis manifests itself in a constant need to seek out what is perceived  as a 'safe space.' Patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) repeat the original 'fight-or-flight' reaction they haves used to protect themselves at the initial scene; yet they suffer from a lack of perspective, due to their lack of a sense of chronology, which causes them to never feel safe. No matter how much they work at trying to find that 'safe space,' they always feel under siege. And even if an immediate threat no longer exists, traumatized persons always imagine themselves to be in a situation of mortal danger."

–"Womb Fantasies: Subjective Architectures in Postmodern Literature, Cinema, and Art" by Caroline Rupprecht

Representing trauma by using conceptual leaps in time. Marguerite Duras and Alain Resnais often explore this in their work through non-linear narratives and temporal ambiguity.  

Interesting in terms of past trauma always being "present", a space of constant reenactment.